Consumers would need to eat less meat, and the agri-food sector would have to produce more plant proteins for things to change.
As a part of a recent study, researchers compared global agricultural production with nutritionists' consumption recommendations and found a drastic mismatch. The study is published in the journal PLOS ONE.
Evan Fraser, the co-author of the study, said, "We simply can't all adopt a healthy diet under the current global agriculture system. Results show that the global system currently overproduces grains, fats, and sugars, while production of fruits and vegetables and, to a smaller degree, protein is not sufficient to meet the nutritional needs of the current population."
Researchers calculated how much land is currently used for farming and how much would be needed if everyone followed the nutritional recommendations. They then projected those numbers for 2050, when the global population is expected to reach 9.8 billion.
They found that we now produce 12 servings of grains per person instead of the recommended eight. That is, five servings of fruits and vegetables instead of 15, three servings of oil and fat instead of one, three servings of protein instead of five, and four servings of sugar instead of none.
"What we are producing at a global level is not what we should be producing according to nutritionists," said Fraser.
He said that developed countries have subsidized grain and corn production for decades in order to become self-sufficient and to establish global leadership in their production. These countries have also spent far more money on research and innovation for these crops than for fruits and vegetables.
Krishna KC, the co-author of the study, said, "Also fat, sugar, and salt are tasty and are what we humans crave, so we have a real hunger for these foods. All of these factors combined have resulted in a world system that is really overproducing these types of foods."
The study suggested that adopting a more nutritious diet is not only good for us but also good for the planet.
The researchers also found that shifting production to match nutritional dietary guidelines would require 50 million fewer hectares of arable land because fruits and vegetables take less land to grow than grain, sugar and fat.
But to achieve this decrease, consumers would need to eat less meat, and the agri-food sector would have to produce more plant proteins.
Without any change, feeding 9.8 billion people will require 12 million more hectares of arable land and at least one billion more hectares of pasture land, said Fraser.
"Feeding the next generation is one of the most pressing challenges facing the 21st century. For a growing population, our calculations suggest that the only way to eat a nutritionally balanced diet, save land and reduce greenhouse gas emission is to consume and produce more fruits and vegetables as well as transition to diets higher in plant-based protein."